# Data Types | BUS 104 – Python Exam

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There are 4 main types of data that we'll be utilizing in Python: strings, integers, floats, and booleans. Let's dive into each of them!

## Strings

Strings are any characters enclosed in quotation marks.

So, this is a string:

"Hello"

But this is not a string...

Hello

...since it's not enclosed in quotation marks.

### str() function

To convert anything into a string, surround it with the str() function.

For example, if I had the following variable assigned to a number...

x = 123

...and surrounded it with the str() function...

x = 123
str(x)

...it would then take on a value of "123" instead of 123.

The str() function is very useful when concatenating integers/floats with strings, since you can't combine them in the same print function!

To visualize this, you cannot do the following:

print("My favorite number is " + 4)

You must surround the integer like so:

print("My favorite number is " + str(4))

## Integers

What's an integer?

An integer is any number without a decimal place.

So, this is an integer:

172

But this is not an integer...

172.0

...since it has a decimal place.

### int() function

To convert a user inputted value into an integer, utilize the int() function!

An example of this is if I were to ask you for your age:

Technically, this isn't good practice since all inputs return strings. So if you said that you were 18 years old, your age would be saved as "18" (a string) instead of 18 (an integer). Your age is not a string, it's an integer.

Therefore, to fix this you should surround your input() function with the int() function like so:

This makes it so your age is 18, like it should be!

## Floats

A float is a number with decimal places.

So, this is a float:

12.572

But this is not a float...

12

...since it doesn't have any decimal places.

### float() function

To convert a user inputted value into a float, utilize the float() function!

An example of this is if you were to input the price of a good:

price = input("What's the price of the product?")

Let's say you enter 12.99. Since inputs return as strings, this would save the price of the good as "12.99" (a string) when it should be 12.99 (a float). A price should not be a string, it should be a float.

To correct this, you should surround your input() function with the float() function like this:

price = float(input("What's the price of the product?"))

This causes the price to be saved as 12.99, as it should!

## Booleans

A boolean is true or false.

Yup, it's that simple.

So, this variable is a boolean...

lives_in_california = True

...but this variable is not a boolean...

age = 18

...since it's not true or false.

## Python Follow-along Guide

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As you come upon key concepts highlighted in yellow, like this sentence here, you can fill-in-the-blanks on your Python Follow-along Guide so that you remember all the important stuff for later!

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Now that we've got a grasp of the different types of data we'll be working with in Python, let's move onto understanding how nested conditionals work. Click below to continue!

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